Halogenated Compounds and Carcinogenesis: An Integrative Review of Their Role and Therapeutic Options


  • Hina Kausar Department of Biochemistry, Bahauddin Zakariya University-BZU, Multan, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Abubakar College of Earth and Environmental Sciences University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Sarmad Habib Khan Department of Biosciences Capital University of Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Bisma Khalil Department of Biotechnology Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Saadia Sharif Lahore Garrison University, Pakistan




Halogenated compounds, toxicity, cancer, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), carcinogen, Treatment


Halogenated compounds, a significant category of chemicals, have been identified as contributors to the development and progression of cancer inside the human body. The elimination of these compounds poses considerable challenges. Halogenated compounds encompass a range of chemical substances, such as vinyl chloride, carbon tetrachloride, hexachlorobenzene, trichloroethylene, brominated chemicals, and chloroform, among others. The scientific literature frequently discusses and examines the chlorinated and brominated derivatives of halogenated phenolic compounds. Each of these substances functions as both carcinogens and mutagens. In relation to industrial sources, the proportion of naturally occurring molecular halide compounds in the environment is considerably diminished, several processes, such as chemical oxidation, disinfection, and aggregation using chemicals that include chlorine (such as FeCl3), can be cited as examples. Various organs can be affected variably by these substances, potentially leading to the development of skin, thyroid gland, liver, testis, and respiratory system malignancies. From our understanding, no similar examination of human populations is provided. Additionally, no comparisons have been made between measured halogenated compound levels in individuals or animals and pertinent toxicology evidence. As more information comes in about how harmful halogenated phenolic compounds are to cells, it is very important to look over the doses that were given and how they were thought to affect people. The objectives of this review entail the examination of reported tissue-specific halogenated compounds and their associated toxicity burdens in both human and animal subjects. The primary aim is to ascertain the relative abundance of these compounds in relation to their putative precursor chemicals, while establishing a correlation between these quantities and pertinent toxicity thresholds. Cancer always develops by causing changes in DNA, which, as a result, causes abnormal and uncontrolled production of cells in our body. This article discusses different types of halogenated compounds, their sources, their effects, the types of cancer they cause, how that particular cancer affects people, and whether there are sufficient therapy options to treat it.




How to Cite

Kausar, H., Abubakar, M., Habib Khan , S., Khalil, B., & Sharif, S. (2023). Halogenated Compounds and Carcinogenesis: An Integrative Review of Their Role and Therapeutic Options. NUST Journal of Natural Sciences, 8(2). https://doi.org/10.53992/njns.v8i2.127